Citation Guide


Newspaper on Microfilm: Raleigh Register, November 6, 1860. (Micfilm N-US NC-1, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.)

Specific article in Microfilm newspaper: “A Last Appeal,” Raleigh Register, November 6, 1860, p.1. (Micfilm N-US NC-1, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.)

Specific article in online newspaper database: “The Ultimate Test,” Wall Street Journal, February 16, 1956, p.10; ProQuest Historical Newspapers,, (accessed October 8, 2006).

Newspaper: Daily Dispatch, Richmond, Virginia. June 12, 1863 (Special Collections Library, University of Virginia).

Law: “An act prohibiting the transportation of slaves on rail-roads” (Chap. 117, March 25, 1837), Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia, 1836/37, p. 101. (GA 5/AC8/836-37, Alderman Library, University of Virginia)

Government documents: “Religion and Schools,” Congressional Record 20, Pt. 1 (21 Dec. 1888) pp.433-434. (X:279, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.)

Message of President on rewards offered for arrest of assassins of Abraham Lincoln (House Ex. Doc. 63, 39-1) Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1866. (Serial Set 1332, Alderman Library, University of Virginia)

Broadside: Democratic ticket: our principles, the constitution. Broadside 1860 .D457 (Special Collections Library, University of Virginia)

Pamphlet or other printed material: Townsend, John. The doom of slavery in the Union: its safety out of it. Charleston, S.C., Printed by Evans & Cogwell, 1860. E449 .T74 1860 (Special Collections Library, University of Virginia)

Records of Southern Plantations on microfilm: George Shelby to Emily Shelby, September 20, 1831, Shelby Papers, reel 1, Micflm 1705 ser. B, Frame 00123. (Alderman Library, University of Virginia.)

Manuscript collection: Mss # 640, etc. Cocke Family Papers, Box 151, Note sheet for inventories. (Special Collections, University of Virginia)

Primary source in a secondary source: Lydia Child to Convers Francis, July 14, 1848, in Letters of Lydia Maria Child (New York, 1969), 65.


All your citations for secondary sources should follow the Chicago Manual of Style. Here are some examples of common formats for common citations using the Chicago guide:

Howard K. Jones, The South (Boston: Freedom Publishing, 1995), 5-13.

Bartholomew Kelley, “The Slave Experience in Georgia,” Historical South Magazine 5 (1984): 57-60

Chapter/Essay in Book:
Carol Reardon, “A Hard Road to Travel: The Impact of Continuous Operations on the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia in May 1864,” The Spotsylvania Campaign, ed. Gary W. Gallagher (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998), 177.

History Museum of Florida, “The Architecture of a Typical Floridian Plantation,” History Museum of Florida, (accessed October 1, 2005).

[If you cannot find an author for the site, you can replace that piece of information with the owner of the site. In this example, “History Museum of Florida” appears twice because there is no author listed and therefore the site owner (History Museum) is listed in the author's place. If the site has an author, that would be the first piece of information listed in the citation.]

Online Encyclopedia:
Complete Encyclopedia Online, s.v. “Andrew Johnson,” (accessed September 24, 2005).

[Each online encyclopedia citation should include “s.v.” (which it stands for “sub verbo” or “under the word”) before the name of the topic of the article you are citing. The plural form is “s.v.v.”]