Between 1870 and 1871, many non-violent demonstrations were held in Louisville, Kentucky by African-Americans in an attempt to demand protection of their civil rights. On May 1, 1871, William Smith, an African-American leader, tried to board a Market Street car in Louisville, Kentucky. Police authorities took action against Smith, and he spent the night in jail. Smith's demonstration was one example of an early instance of how non-violent demonstrations were used in American civil rights movement. The event was significant because it represented the African-American commitment to civil rights in Kentucky even after the Supreme Court had ruled in their favor. The Supreme Court had already issued its decision, but Smith was still arrested. It became very important to the African-American population that their civil rights be upheld. In the context of the American civil rights movement, this event was important because it was an example of how civil disobedience was an effective method to bring about change.