In response to the machine politics in Louisiana, commercial elites attempted to further their desired reforms by introducing the Citizens' League.' The league had a crusade-like' quality fighting for a smaller city council, clean voter registration laws, a secret ballot, and an enlargement of the police force among other things. These critics of the Ring rule' and the municipal corruption of New Orleans initially had substantial success. However, this league's apparent ambition and benevolence of thwarting the corruption was not so accommodating to African-Americans in Louisiana. Soon enough, the group gained much political clout, and while they succeeded in their crusade for reform, they came to look more and more like machine politics in their hostility to the New Orleans African American population. Their formation and rise of power was supported by this African American population who they came to be hostile to their needs.